Enhancing Electronic Voting With A Dual-Blockchain Architecture

Keywords: electronic voting, blockchains, consensus algorithms

Abstract

Voting is one of the most fundamental aspects of democracy. Over the past few decades, voting methods around the world have expanded from traditional paper ballot systems to electronic voting (e-voting), in which votes are written directly to computer memory. Like any computer system, voting machines are susceptible to technical vulnerabilities that open up opportunities for hackers to tamper with votes, causing the use of electronic voting technology to raise concerns about ballot security. We describe how electronic voting can be supported by blockchain technology to ensure voter secrecy, vote correctness, and equal voting rights. In this paper, we present a system using two separate blockchains, each with separate transactions and consensus algorithms. We describe a prototype implementation that validates our ideas by executing several proof-of-concept simulations of a range of voting scenarios.

Author Biography

Kees Leune, Adelphi University
Assistant Professor, Department of Mathematics and Computer Science

References

Agbesi, S., Asante, G. “Electronic Voting Recording System Based on Blockchain Technology.” In 2019 12th CMI Conference on Cybersecurity and Privacy (CMI) 1–8 (2019) https://doi:org/10:1109/CMI48017:2019:8962142.

Appel, A. W. “Effective Audit Policy for Voter-Verified Paper Ballots.” American Political Science Association (accessed 19 January 2021) https://www:cs:princeton:edu/~appel/papers/appel-nj-audits:pdf.

Barnes, A., Brake, C., Perry, T. “Digital Voting with the Use of Blockchain Technology.” The Economist (accessed 1 March 2018) https://www:economist:com/sites/default/files/plymouth:pdf.

Castro, M., Liskov, B. “Practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance.” In Proceedings of the Third Symposium on Operating Systems Design and Implementation 173-186 (1999) https://doi:org/10:5555/296806:296824.

Cucurull, J., Rodrıguez-Perez, A., Finogina, T., Puiggali, J. “Blockchain-Based Internet Voting: Systems’ Compliance with International Standards.” In BIS 2018 International Workshops Springer Nature Switzerland AG 300–312 (2019) https://doi:org:/10:1007/978-3-030-04849-527.

Goel, U., Ruhl, R., Zavarsky, P. “Using Healthcare Authority and Patient Blockchains to Develop a Tamper-Proof Record Tracking System.” In 2019 IEEE 5th Intl Conference on Big Data Security on Cloud (BigDataSecurity), IEEE Intl Conference on High Performance and Smart Computing, (HPSC) and IEEE Intl Conference on Intelligent Data and Security (IDS) 25–30 (2019) https://doi:org/10:1109/BigDataSecurity-HPSC-IDS:2019:00016.

Hardwick, F. S., Akram, R. N., Markantonakis, K. “E-Voting With Blockchain: An E-Voting Protocol with Decentralisation and Voter Privacy.” 2018 IEEE International Conference on Internet of Things (iThings) and IEEE Green Computing and Communications (GreenCom) and IEEE Cyber, Physical and Social Computing (CPSCom) and IEEE Smart Data (SmartData) 1561–1567 (2018) https://doi:org/10:1109/Cybermatics 2018:2018:00262.

Hjalmarsson, F., Hreidarsson, G., Hamdaqa, M., Hjalmtysson, G. “Blockchain-Based E-Voting System.” In Proceedings of 2018 IEEE 11th International Conference on Cloud Computing 983–986 (2018) https://doi:org/10:1109/CLOUD:2018:00151.

Jefferson, D., Rubin, A., Simons, B., Wagner, D. “Analyzing Internet Voting Security.” Communications of the ACM 47.10 59–64 (2004) https://doi:org/10:1145/1022594:1022624.

Khan, K. M., Arshad, J., Khan, M. M. “Investigating Performance Constraints for Blockchain Based Secure E-Voting Systems.” Future Generation Computer Systems 105 13–26 (2020) https://doi:org/10:1016/j:future:2019:11:005.

Kirby, K., Masi, A., Maymi, F. “Votebook, A Proposal for a Blockchain-Based Electronic Voting System.” The Economist (2016) https://www:economist:com/sites/default/files/nyu:pdf.

Kshetri, N., Voas, J. “Blockchain-Enabled E-Voting.” IEEE Software 35.4 95–99 (2018) https://doi:org/10:1109/MS:2018:2801546.

Lee, K., James, J. I., Ejeta, T. G., Kim, H. J. “Electronic Voting Service Using Block-Chain.” The Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law 11.8 (2016) https://doi:org/10:15394/jdfsl:2016:1383.

Lee, K., James, J. I., Ejeta, T. G., Kim, H. J. “Electronic Voting Service Using Block-Chain.” The Journal of Digital Forensics, Security and Law 11.8 (2016) https://doi:org/10:15394/jdfsl:2016:1383.

Liang, W., Lei, X., Li, K.-C., Fan, Y., Cai, J. “A Dual-Chain Digital Copyright Registration and Transaction System Based on Blockchain Technology.” Communications in Computer and Information Science 1156 (2020) https://doi:org/10:1007/978-981-15-2777-7 57.

Lightman, A., Gu, E., Huang, K., Hao, C. “Dualchain Whitepaper.” Metaverse Foundation (accessed 2 January 2021) https://mvsdna:com/MVS Dualchain White Paper-v:1:00:pdf.

Moore, L., Sawhney, N. “Under the Hood: The West Virginia Mobile Voting Pilot.” (2019) https://blog:voatz:com/wp-content/uploads/2019/02/West-Virginia-Mobile-Voting-White-Paper-NASS-Submission:pdf.

Moura, T., Gomes, A. “Blockchain Voting and its Effects on Election Transparency and Voter Confidence.” In dg.o ’17: Proceedings of the 18th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research 574–575 (2017) https://doi:org/10:1145/3085228:3085263.55.

No Author. “UniLect Patriot (and VMR 138).” verifiedvoting.org (accessed 7 April 2019) Page no longer available at original address, archived at https://web:archive:org/web/20200807000332/https://verifiedvoting:org/resources/voting-equipment/unilect/patriot/.

Oostveen, A.-M., Besselaar, P. v. d. “Security as Belief: User’s Perceptions on the Security of Electronic Voting systems.” In A. Prosser, R. Krimmer (Eds.), Electronic Voting in Europe - Technology, Law, Politics and Society, Workshop of the ESF TED Programme Together with GI and OCG Bonn: Gesellschaft fur Informatik e.V. 73–82 (2004) https://dl:gi:de/handle/20:500:12116/29131.

Park, S., Narula, N., Rivest, R. L. “Going from Bad to Worse: From Internet Voting to Blockchain Voting.” MIT (2020) https://people:csail:mit:edu/rivest/pubs/PSNR20:pdf.

Racsko, P. “Blockchain and Democracy.” Society and Economy 41.3 353–369 (2019) https://doi:org/10:1556/204:2019:007.

Rivest, R. L., Stark, P. B. “When Is an Election Verifiable?” IEEE Security and Privacy 15.3 48–50 (2017) https://doi:org/10:1109/msp:2017:78.

Ryan, P. Y., Bismark, D., Heather, J., Schneider, S., Xia, Z. “Prˆet `a Voter: A Voter-Verifiable Voting System.” IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and Security 4.4 662–673 (2009) https://doi:org/10:1109/TIFS:2009:2033233.

Schwartz, D. “The Inherently Decentralized Nature of XRP Ledger.” (2018) https://ripple:com/insights/the-inherently-decentralized-nature-of-xrp-ledger/.

Schwartz, D., Youngs, N., Britto, A. “The Ripple Protocol Consensus Algorithm.” arXiv (2018) https://arxiv:org/abs/1802:07242.

Selker, T., Cohen, S. “An Active Approach to Voting Verification.” MIT (accessed 17 January 2021) https://dspace:mit:edu/handle/1721:1/96565.

Vijayalakshmi, V., Vimal, S. “A Novel P2P Based System with Blockchain for Secured Voting Scheme.” In 2019 Fifth International Conference on Science Technology Engineering and Mathematics (ICONSTEM) 153–156 (2019) https://doi:org/10:1109/ICONSTEM:2019:8918895.

Wagner, A. “Can Blockchain-Enabled Voting Meet Security and Secrecy Standards?” Chicago Policy Review (online) (2019) https://chicagopolicyreview:org/2019/04/09/can-blockchain-enabled-voting-meet-security-and-secrecy-standards/.

Yi, H. “Secure E-Voting Based on Blockchain in P2P Network.” EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking 137 (2019) https://doi:org/10:1186/s13638-019-1473-6.

Published
2021-03-19
How to Cite
Leune, K., & Punjwani, J. (2021). Enhancing Electronic Voting With A Dual-Blockchain Architecture. Ledger, 6. https://doi.org/10.5195/ledger.2021.199
Section
Research Articles