A Decentralized Context Broker Using Byzantine Fault Tolerant Consensus
Keywords:decentralized consensus, context broker, industry 4.0
A context broker is a reliable message-relaying service used to connect devices by integrating all device protocols and communication methods, and reliably transporting messages while isolating data from other application service layers and networking complexities. A highly scalable decentralized context broker stack is composed of three layers—starting with a peer-to-peer network connecting a byzantine fault-tolerant (i.e., blockchain-based) consensus protocol—and it manages the communication using a web-socket streaming protocol as interface to other applications. This paper presents such a concept for a decentralized context broker stack for intercommunication between heterogeneous materials handling systems, and deploys the stack as proof-of-concept using ROS-based robots in a logistics scenario.
Blesing, C., Luensch, D., Stenzel, J., Korth, B. “Concept of a Multi-agent Based Decentralized Production System for the Automotive Industry.” In International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multi-Agent Systems Springer 19–30 (2017) https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-59930-4_2.
Buchman, E. “Tendermint: Byzantine Fault Tolerance in the Age of Blockchains.” PhD Thesis, University of Guelph (2016) http://hdl.handle.net/10214/9769.
Cameron, A., Payne, M., Prela, B. “Research and Implementation of Multiple Blockchain Byzantine Secure Consensus Protocols for Robot Swarms.” (2018) unpublished research (accessed 9 March 2019) https://courses.csail.mit.edu/6.857/2018/project/Cameron-Payne-Prela-ByzRobSwarm.pdf.
Dregger, J., Niehaus, J., Ittermann, P., Hirsch-Kreinsen, H., ten Hompel, M. “The Digitization of Manufacturing and Its Societal Challenges: A Framework for the Future of Industrial Labor.” In 2016 IEEE
FIWARE Foundation. “FIWARE: The Open Source Platform for Our Smart Digital Future.” (2018) (accessed 9 March 2019) https://www.fiware.org/.
International Symposium on Ethics in Engineering, Science and Technology (ETHICS) IEEE 1–3 (2016) https://doi.org/10.1109/ETHICS.2016.7560045.
Strobel, V., Castelló Ferrer, E., Dorigo, M. “Managing Byzantine Robots Via Blockchain Technology in a Swarm Robotics Collective Decision Making Scenario.” In Proceedings of the 17th International Conference on Autonomous Agents and MultiAgent Systems International Foundation for Autonomous Agents and Multiagent Systems 541–549 (2018) https://dl.acm.org/citation.cfm?id=3237464.
Venkatapathy, A. K. R., Riesner, A., Roidl, M., Emmerich, J., ten Hompel, M. “PhyNode: An Intelligent, Cyber-Physical System with Energy Neutral Operation for PhyNetLab.” In Smart SysTech 2015; Proceedings of the European Conference on Smart Objects, Systems and Technologies VDE 1–8 (2015) https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/7323355.
How to Cite
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- The Author retains copyright in the Work, where the term “Work” shall include all digital objects that may result in subsequent electronic publication or distribution.
- Upon acceptance of the Work, the author shall grant to the Publisher the right of first publication of the Work.
- The Author shall grant to the Publisher and its agents the nonexclusive perpetual right and license to publish, archive, and make accessible the Work in whole or in part in all forms of media now or hereafter known under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License or its equivalent, which, for the avoidance of doubt, allows others to copy, distribute, and transmit the Work under the following conditions:
- Attribution—other users must attribute the Work in the manner specified by the author as indicated on the journal Web site;
- The Author is able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the nonexclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the Work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), as long as there is provided in the document an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post online a prepublication manuscript (but not the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work) in institutional repositories or on their Websites prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work. Any such posting made before acceptance and publication of the Work shall be updated upon publication to include a reference to the Publisher-assigned DOI (Digital Object Identifier) and a link to the online abstract for the final published Work in the Journal.
- Upon Publisher’s request, the Author agrees to furnish promptly to Publisher, at the Author’s own expense, written evidence of the permissions, licenses, and consents for use of third-party material included within the Work, except as determined by Publisher to be covered by the principles of Fair Use.
- The Author represents and warrants that:
- the Work is the Author’s original work;
- the Author has not transferred, and will not transfer, exclusive rights in the Work to any third party;
- the Work is not pending review or under consideration by another publisher;
- the Work has not previously been published;
- the Work contains no misrepresentation or infringement of the Work or property of other authors or third parties; and
- the Work contains no libel, invasion of privacy, or other unlawful matter.
- The Author agrees to indemnify and hold Publisher harmless from Author’s breach of the representations and warranties contained in Paragraph 6 above, as well as any claim or proceeding relating to Publisher’s use and publication of any content contained in the Work, including third-party content.
- The Author agrees to digitally sign the Publisher’s final formatted PDF version of the Work.
Revised 7/16/2018. Revision Description: Removed outdated link.