Blockchains and Triple-Entry Accounting for B2B Business Models


  • Muhammad Imran Sarwar Department of Computer Science & IT, The Superior University, Lahore
  • Kashif Nisar Department of Computer Science & IT, The Superior University, Lahore
  • Imran Khan Department of Computer Science & IT, The Superior University, Lahore
  • Danish Shehzad Department of Computer Science & IT, The Superior University, Lahore



Triple-Entry Accounting, Accounting Information System, Blockchain, B2B Transactions, Double-Entry Accounting


A blockchain is a distributed ledger (DL) that records and tracks of transactions on a P2P network. It was originally designed for cryptocurrencies, but it is now used in healthcare, supply chain management, finance, and many more fields due to its security and trustworthiness. Trust and security are critical factors in any business, and the B2B model is no exception. In businesses, trust becomes more critical when the stakes are higher and the relationships are more complex. Centuries-old Double-Entry Accounting (DEA) is still used as an underlying accounting practice, and its reliability and efficiency are beyond question. But a critical review of DEA reveals that it lacks support for B2B transactions, as the two parties maintain their accounting books without cross-checks and verifications that may lead to an implausible situation. Triple-Entry Accounting (TEA) is an emerging accounting practice introduced in the recent past to overcome the limitations of DEA. It only applies if an outside person or business is involved in a transaction and is not meant to record any internal business transactions. Recording transactions on a blockchain and entering the third transaction via TEA are conceptually the same. The potential of blockchain-based TEA can address the challenges of the B2B business model and overcome some specific limitations of DEA. This study aims to survey the current state of the adaptation of blockchains and TEA in B2B transactions. The methodology used in this study can be classified as exploratory qualitative research and is based on the latest literature on the topics. The findings of this study would deepen our understanding of blockchains and TEA for B2B transactions as they highlight new opportunities and challenges.


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2023-07-25 — Updated on 2023-07-26


How to Cite

Sarwar, M. I., Nisar, K., Khan, I., & Shehzad, D. (2023). Blockchains and Triple-Entry Accounting for B2B Business Models. Ledger, 8. (Original work published July 25, 2023)



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